Impact of Modern Communication                                             Page :50

 
Dr. Jatin
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Dr. Jatin
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 The early ethnographers like Hutton(1921), Gorer(1938), Fuer-Haimen-dorf(1930) and others treated the tribes as isolates. It was rather a fact during the time of their studies on the tribes. But a careful analysis of these ethno graphics studies does show that even at that time the level of interaction between the tribes and the non tribes was significant. Economic necessities had been the main reason for these interactions where oral communications played the significant role. In this context, the study of Damle(1955) can be referred to where he says that the penetration of modern ideas and knowledge in Indian villages are the reasult of improvement of the communication system in India. While discussing the trade and barter of Akas, Sinha(1962:48-52) writes:
                The trade of Akas, as such, is of two kinds: one which they carry on among   themselves and what conveniently called the inter-village trade, and secondly ,  their trade with the plains. The system of barter is more practical in the mutual   trade between their own villages and to some extent with the neighbouring    Bangi people with whom they come into contact for trade purposes. In their  trade with the  people in the plains(non-tribes),they have to deal essentially in   cash....with the  money they get in return for their commodities, they usually  purchase their necessity like cloth, silver ornaments and utensils.  Their  trade with the plains(non-tribes) has introduced a good deal of currency  among them.
      It  shows that the Akas have been interacting with a wider world which included non-tribes and tribes alike. While discussing the Assamese culture, Das(1967) argues that Assamese culture has adopted ideas, beliefs, and institutions of surrounding Mongoloid population. He says that there has been a mutual borrowing between the hill people and those of the vally in Assam. That was possible on account of mutual exchange of goods through barter, linguistic interaction, and interpretation of religious ideas.Majumdar(1967) describes the social organization of the Koch of the  Garo hillls and their gradual merging into Hindu society. Roy Burman and Thukral(1970) have tried to provide a picture of the dynamic process of interaction among the various tribes and non-tribes of North-East India. According to them(1970:107);
                   A change is taking place in the perspective of the larger setting for social  interactions. It is significant to note that for most of the tribes of this region   the etymological meaning of their name is 'man'. It appears that in their traditional world view they divided the mankind into two groups-one  consisting of themselves only and other consisting of rest of humanity. With   the expansion of communication, intensification of contact with and being   drawn in the orbit of world technological order, the frame of reference to   these communities for social interaction is rapidly undergoing change. For  various purposes they perceive their reference groups differently depending  on their stage of cultural development.
            These happenings are the result of communication and interaction among the people-both tribes and non tribes. As pointed out by Mishra(1973), for these interactions, people must have the communication facilities which ultimately help in accepting modern ideas. And in most of the cases the leaders and the students played as the media of communication who help in the interaction of the people with their reference groups (see Lionberger and Mishra 1976).


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