Introduction                                                                               Page : 4

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Dr. Jatin
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Dr. Jatin
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             For the purpose of the present study, the communication has been divided into the following two parts :

            (a) the traditional communication which includes oral system of communications,  transport (elephants, boats), messengers and announcement through drum  beating etc., and

           (b)  the modern system of communication includes formal and written  communication, post and telegram, transport (roads and rails), mass-media (radio, newspapers and cinema).

                                                           III

The term development is frequently used by the economists and other social scientists. But the theoretical framework of the term 'development' in sociological perspective has emerged only a few years back when the emphasis was laid on non-economic and human factors (Eisenstadt : 1961; Smelser : 1963; Barringer : 1965; Bhumer : 1966; Horowitz : 1966; Aron : 1967). It is to be noted that most of the contemporary social scientists have concentrated on the societal development (Gresinger : 1971; Havers : 1971; Warner : 1971; Elberts and Young : 1971) and the significant role of value in development (Von Wiese : 1956; Horowitz : 1966; Myrdal : 1968). Moreover, sociological theory on development has given emphasis on the 'Statios' to 'dynamics' of society (Moore : 1960a; Parsons : 1961; Martindale : 1962; Horowitz : 1966; Hobbs : 1971).

              A few social scientists have regarded development as a type of social change (Greiger : 1971; Havens : 1971; Warner : 1971). Others have given emphasis on normative aspects (Seers : 1970; Warner : 1971; Kim : 1973). According to Seers (1971 :1-2):

               Development is inevitably treated as a normative concept, as almost synonym for  improvement, to pretend otherwise is just to hide one's value judgments.

Kim (1973) discusses development by giving emphasis on the following aspects :

        (a) development as value concept;
        (b) development as societal structural change; and
        (c) importance of political leadership in development process.

How the value perspectives have been helping in the change of personal values and thus help in attitudinal change are analysed by the social scientists from various angles


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