Socio-Economic Development                                                           Page :65

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surplus agricultural products and sell them in the marketing centers. Few domestic possessions are also sold in the market. And we are happy that all type of communications, specially the improvement in transportation, help us to sell the surplus agricultural products or purchase essential commodities from other parts of the area.
Case Study 7.5
             Name - Shri Moni Padun. Age-60 years. Village-Duhutimukh.
 Shri Padun is of the opinion that due to constant contact with not-tribal Assamese, the socio-economic structure of the Mishings has been changing. In comparison to the time of his youth, now-a-days, more status is given to the economically sound families. It leads to the determination of stratification system among them. Therefore, people are now conscious in producing more agricultural products to gain position in society. Ultimately, as he says, competition starts among the villagers for more agricultural output. He is of the opinion that it has paved the way for economic soundness among his co-villagers.

Case Study 7.6
              Name - Shri Manuram Doley. Age - 66 years. Village-Barpamua.
              As informed by Shri Doley, majority of his co-villagers are self-sufficient. Their agricultural products are mostly for consumption. The profit gained out of selling surplus products is invested in the education of their children. Their community is changing gradually due to acculturation and communication. As a result, expenditure in various aspects has been increasing. Therefore, as he told, the villagers are bound to do business and to take other alternative measures to maintain their family. It leads to the division of labour among them. So, their sources of income have widened.

Health
              The traditional notion about diseases of the people under study is that there are unknown spirits behind all kinds of diseases suffered by them. For the prevention of unknown diseases they worship their ancestors with pujas like Dobur, Dotgang, Urom Apin etc. The thunder and lightening (Mukling-Taleng), earth and water (Among-Ashi), air and fire (Esar-Emi) alike are believed to be spiritual beings possessing power greater than those of man. According to the belief of the people, they are benevolent to human beings, protect their farms and families from damages and misfortune, but they have to be kept appeased with occasional offerings called Taleng-Uyu and Bokpu-Done(eater of white cock). The evil spirits to whom every illness or misfortune is attributed are the spirits looking around the streams (Ashi-Uyu), the mountains (Adi-Uyu), the forest (Yumrang-Uyu) etc. To protect themselves from these spirit or Uyus they perform pujas for the respective Uyus.The Miboo is supposed to know the spirti or Uyu responsible for illness or trouble and the form of worship that will appease them. The Miboo or village expert, for instance, has often been found offering chickens in the name of Dopum Dorum, a demon having three heads, to evade the attack of tetanic or  infantile convulsions and at times the spirtis is threatened with heated iron-rod and burning pepper. These malevolent motives of the evil spirit (Aiman Uyu) causing bodily illness or misfortune have to be brought off by offering pig, fowl, plantains, Apong etc. in ways prescribed by the Miboo and expert (pegu, 1956:56-57).


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